Brocker.Org: Charging or Issues Systems in Special Libraries in Sierra Leone


Specific libraries are collections that exist to serve the specific requirements of their consumers. The libraries are diversified as their requirements. Nonetheless, the libraries do have widespread features in the company that they offer, their targeted collections and their proficient staff who are in a position to adapt to the changing requirements of their consumers foundation. The phrase “Specific libraries” is a misnomer, because all libraries are exclusive and have commonalities in their capabilities. This statement does not dispute the point that some libraries have exclusive worries-be they of their clientele, their collections or their purpose. A regular definition of a exclusive library would be the a single that exist to serve the restricted requirements of a specific entity- a business enterprise, industry, federal government company, non-profit group or qualified organisations. Also provided are subject oriented models of a general public or academic library (Beenham and Harrison, 1990).

The assortment of exclusive libraries is smaller and tends to be a lot more targeted in comparison to general public and academic libraries. Specific libraries have the instruments and the men and women essential to make facts readily available to the consumer because it is not just enough to accumulate and dwelling facts. It have to be made available to users. A Specific library in shorter is particularised facts companies which correlates, interprets and makes use of the elements at hand for the continual use and benefit of the organisation it serves (Chirgwin and Oldfield, 1982).

The above-using requirement of the Specific library is that it need to offer current facts that allows investigation staff and other employers to carry out their obligations efficiently. As a result, it supplies not only a assortment of elements for which is recognized need, but also a network of companies that make facts quickly readily available for a variety of outside the house resources.

Earlier, the provision of guides and other elements for applications of investigation had been regarded of paramount worth. With the dramatic maximize in the quantity of put up-war college student in Sierra Leone, it came to be a lot more typically recognized that a university library need to goal to serve the requirements of their key types of visitors namely, the undergraduate investigation employee, and the academic staff.

Definition of Charging or Problems Process

According to Berkett and Ritiche (1977), the recording of the personal loan of elements is known as charging or issuing. The charging method selected by a particular library depends to a big extent on the library’s clientele, the dimension of the inventory and the will need to prohibit the quantity of products which a library member may well have on personal loan, and on whether or not the library has peak periods for the lending and returning of elements. The selection of procedures will also be influenced by the amount of money and style of facts the library staff requires the challenge to furnish.

The purpose of a circulation procedure is to give the library users as a lot entry as feasible to the inventory. Regretably, a e-book loaned to a single reader is not readily available to some others and particular limits have to be made. For instance an Encyclopedia is a compendium of knowledge on a large quantity of subjects and is created for quick reference alternatively than for steady looking through. Letting this kind of a e-book on personal loan would inconvenience a excellent quantity of library users with out benefitting the borrower.
Every single library will use a procedure for recording the guides and other products it lends to its visitors. There have been a lot of modern day developments to file difficulties in the last 30 yrs, generally thanks to significant cost of staffing, increased usage, and in research of better all-spherical performance. There is no a single all-purpose systems which will satisfy the demands of all types of library, although the most up-to-date computer system charging procedure can cope with a lot of factors speedily.

A fantastic procedure need to enable the library staff to explore which reader has borrowed which e-book. It need to demonstrate when guides are thanks for return and which are overdue. Some systems can command the quantity of guides issued, and specifically the quantity which every single reader has borrowed. The better systems will permit the e-book is renewed with out returning the e-book in human being, and need to permit visitors to reserve guides which are not quickly readily available.

Charging or Problems Process in Libraries

The Circulation division is the location where most patrons are employed to because it is in this article that library elements are loaned out and returned right after use, and it is often referred to as the major or consider residence division. Data of patrons are kept in this article right after they have accomplished a essential type that supplies individual facts about them, that is, name, deal with, sexual intercourse, position and guarantor. Some departments have different playing cards for different types of users to comprehensive. The subsequent capabilities are however carried out by circulation division:
• Registration of new users and holding the documents of library patrons
• Preserving documents of borrowed elements and individuals returned
• Noting down when borrowed elements are thanks back in the library
• Preserving figures of the division
• Sending overdue notices to patrons who are unsuccessful to return their guides when thanks (Nwogu, 1991).

Kinds of Charging or Issue Units employed in Libraries

As has been stated, a single of the principal companies presented by libraries is the lending of guides and some others elements. Obviously, libraries will need to maintain some variety of file of this kind of personal loan transactions and a lot of procedures have been devised to control this undertaking. These procedures are recognized as Charging or Issuing procedures. The charging method selected by a particular library depends to a big extent on the library’s clientele, the dimension of inventory and the will need to prohibit the quantity of products which a library member may well have on personal loan and on whether or not the library has peak periods for the lending and returning of product. In this article are some examples of charging procedures employed in diversified varieties of libraries.

The Browne Process: For a lot of, a lot of yrs the most generally employed charging method is the Browne procedure. With this procedure, a membership software type is loaded in and the reader is offered a quantity of tickets bearing his or her name and deal with. The reader presents the guides to be borrowed at the challenge desk, together with a reader’s ticket for every single e-book. The day label in every single e-book is stamped with the day of return the e-book card is eliminated from every single e-book and inserted into the reader’s tickets (a single e-book card for every ticket). The cost therefore is a single e-book card inserted into a single ticket. When the e-book is returned, the assistant will appear inside it to verify from the day label, or pocket, the accession quantity/writer/class quantity as properly as the thanks day. The proper cost is then eliminated from the challenge, the e-book card changed in the e-book pocket and the ticket returned to the reader.

The Islington procedure: In this charging procedure, every single reader is offered a single plastic ticket on which is embossed his or her name and deal with. The stationery inside the library guides is the exact as the Browne procedure. Nonetheless, the distinction lies in the point that the reader have to print an deal with slip (applying an embossed ticket) for every single e-book he or she wishes to borrow. As a result the ‘charge’ is a e-book card additionally a paper deal with slip inside a blank ticket.

Ticket e-book or Cheque e-book charging: In this method, every single e-book has a e-book pocket permanently set inside the include on which particulars of the e-book are offered. In this e-book pocket is a simple pocket, inside which is a e-book card bearing particulars of the e-book. The reader will need only insert a single of his or her ticket slip into the simple pocket and existing the e-book for day stamping. The assistant eliminates the ‘charge’ and it is subsequently submitted. The challenge trays are ordinarily kept in a different ‘discharge room’ and not at the challenge desk. There is a reception desk where the guides are returned, the actual discharging currently being finished later on in the ‘discharging room’ when the cost is eliminated from the challenge, the reader’s ticket destroyed and the simple pocket and e-book card returned to the e-book. An additional ‘cheque book’ is issued to the reader every time the past a single is employed up.

Token Charging: The e-book day label is stamped in the typical way, and the reader have to surrender a single token for every single e-book currently being issued. On returning the guides, the reader merely receives the proper quantity of tokens in exchange. At the conclusion of every single calendar year the reader have to be in a position to deliver the whole enhance of tokens or spend a replacement cost for any which have been misplaced. A visible index (that is a checklist of reserved guides which have to be checked every time guides are returned) is employed for reservations.

Punched card charging: when a e-book is borrowed, the assistant normally takes two punched playing cards, pre-dated with day thanks for return (the two punched and dated stamped), locations the two punched playing cards in an computerized vital punched machine and punches on the two playing cards the reader’s quantity and e-book accession quantity and class quantity. One card is retained as the library’s file of loans the other card is inserted in the e-book pocket with the day of return obviously visible. The punched playing cards are eliminated from returned guides, sorted into accession quantity purchase by machine, and then matched by machine with the duplicate playing cards kept as the library’s file of loans. Unmatched playing cards signifies guides nonetheless out on personal loan and these can be refilled mechanically, this time in day purchase to reveal overdue.

Computerised Issuing Process: Computer systems now readily available in libraries are extremely highly developed certainly. The challenge terminal is outfitted with a knowledge pen to which may well be hooked up a self-inking day stamp. There is a card holder into which the reader’s ticket is inserted. Charging is completed by running the knowledge pen horizontally across the bar code on the reader’s ticket and the across the barcode labels on the guides to be borrowed. The day labels in the e-book are stamped with the day of return and the ticket is returned to the reader. The discharge terminal is also outfitted with an additional knowledge pen and this is employed to go through the books’ bar code labels when they are returned. The reader’s ticket is not required at this phase as the reader’s name will be immediately deleted from the computer system documents when all guides are have been returned(Beenham, and Harrison 1990).

Charging or Issue Process at the School of Medication and Allied Well being Sciences Library

The School of Medication and Allied Well being Sciences (COMAHS) was launched on the 12th April, 1988 by the Federal government of Sierra Leone in Co-procedure with the Nigerian federal government and the Earth Well being Organisation (WHO). With the enactment and coming into result of the 2005 University Act, which led to the generation of two universities in Sierra Leone, School of Medication and Allied Well being Sciences as a constituent arm of the University of Sierra Leone, in cooperation with the Nationwide College of Nursing, which is now a college and the Pharmacy Technician College, also aspect of the College of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

The School of Medication and Allied Well being Sciences library started out a couple months right after the faculty was established in 1988. The library was initial found at Bass Street, in Brookfields and later on transferred to New England in Freetown, from where it was last but not least transferred to the Connaught Healthcare facility, when the Ministry of Well being gave up the developing it employed to occupy as a library.

The School of Medication and Allied Well being Sciences library was started out by a Health-related Librarian by the name of Nancy M’Jamtu-Sie in 1988. The library holds the key inventory of Health-related and Well being Sciences elements in the University of Sierra Leone. The library depends only on donations and it operates on 3 web pages: the key Health-related library at the Connaught Healthcare facility which properties the library administrative office, shorter personal loan, reference, Earth Well being Organisation audio cassettes assortment the CD-ROM and Internet services, the multidisciplinary library at the Nationwide College of Nursing, properties the normal assortment and as properly as shorter personal loan and reference guides and the Health-related Sciences library at the Kossoh City Campus.

The mission of School of Medication and Allied Well being Sciences is: “to practice local community-oriented medical practitioners, pharmacists, nurses, laboratory scientists, and the wellness personnel with seem qualified and managerial skills suitably capable to satisfy global standards and capable to undertake investigation and pursue teaching in specialised places for wellness care delivery companies.”

The School of Medication and Allied Well being Sciences procedures the Browne Issue Process stated previously mentioned, which is practiced in most libraries especially Specific libraries found in the University of Sierra Leone. With the Browne Charging or Issuing procedure at the School of Medication and Allied Well being Sciences library, every single library e-book has a e-book card which is kept in a pocket inside every single e-book. The card identifies every single e-book by recording, ordinarily the accession quantity, classification quantity, writer and shorter title. Every single reader has a ticket issued to him/her which suggests the name and deal with. This reader’s ticket holds the e-book card, which is taken from the pocket in the e-book, and this sorts the file of the challenge. Every single e-book is stamped with the day for return and the challenge is submitted in trays below the day thanks for return, and within just what day almost certainly by accession quantity.

When the visitors return the e-book, the day thanks for stamped on the day label locates the accurate day between the challenge trays and the accession quantity printed on the day label need to locate the accurate placement within just that day. The e-book card is then returned to the e-book, which is now completely ready for shelving and the reader recovers his tickets. Overdue guides are self-evident considering that the trays are in day purchase, and reservation are made hunting the proper care in an apparent way. The Brown procedure is only operated and quickly understood by library staff and visitors alike.
Clientele or Buyers of School of Medication and Allied Well being Sciences Library

A clientele in library is a entire body of clients or patrons that helps make use of a library in purchase to get wanted facts. The clientele of a library are extremely proficient group. For that reason, the emphasis of the library is on sustaining appreciable depth of subject product or giving facts to be in print.All members of the University of Sierra Leone who are allowed to use the School of Medication and Allied Well being Science library have to sign-up with the library and get a membership card. External visitors are allowed to use the library for reference applications but would not be offered borrowing services.

At the School of Medication and Allied Well being Sciences library, most of the guides are readily available to users for personal loan interval and the quantity of guides loaned varies. The e-book inventory handles fundamental clinical sciences, biology, physiology, biochemistry and all disciplines of drugs. Guides are borrowed to the two pupils and staff for specific interval of time.

Worries of Charging or Issue Process employed at the School of Medication and Allied Well being Sciences Library

Specific Libraries in Sierra Leone, especially School of Medication and Allied Well being Sciences Library are not with out difficulties.

Place Problem: The 3 web pages where the School of Medication and Allied Well being Sciences library operates have been observed to be extremely tiny with reference to the developing. The places of these web pages especially with ones at Nationwide College of Nursing which properties the normal assortment as properly as shorter personal loan and reference guides and the Health-related Sciences library at the Kossoh City campus, are not witnessed as favourable in phrases of their places. They do not give handy entry for all staff and consumers. Shelving and storage has not been conveniently found.

Fiscal Position: The economic standing of the School of Medication and Allied Well being Sciences library has been extremely unsatisfactorily especially when the administration simply cannot satisfy with its obligation of getting care of the library’s itinerary. This has led to the library not possessing up to date collections. This has been witnessed in the location of salaries, which has been extremely very poor, operational fees, subscriptions, acquisitions, teaching and qualified development.

Insufficient Components: Components at School of Medication and Allied Well being Sciences are insufficient to satisfy the requirements of its users. Components are generally acquired via donations as the library does not have enough funds to purchase elements in purchase to satisfy the requirements of its users.

Inadequate pcs and restricted Internet Services: There are no satisfactory pcs and solid world wide web connectivity adequate enough to company the various clienteles. At the School of Medication and Allied Well being Sciences library, the insufficient quantity of readily available pcs does not permit the library to operate the Computer charging or issuing procedure which is a lot more progress and simpler to operate than the Browne charging procedure which the library now utilizes. The Internet company supplied is also not adequate to cope with the significant quantity of the two their pupils, staff and other users.

Absence of satisfactory experienced and capable staff: The School of Medication and Allied Well being Sciences library is shorter of satisfactory experienced and capable Librarians which have rendered the library ineffective in the location of correctly disseminating facts to users. The library is only made up of two capable librarians and additional staff is made up of a technician, clerks, cleaners and messengers.

Conclusively, the School of Medication and Allied Well being Sciences library as a Specific library in the University of Sierra Leone has been in a position to satisfy the facts requirements of the a lot of users with the Browne Issue procedure that it operates on. Nonetheless, the assortment is not up to date and the company is not outstanding enough to fulfill the clientele that it caters for. The School library lacks enough funds to purchase up to date elements. The companies of the library have not been also satisfactorily and this is thanks to couple experienced personnel and restricted services. In spite of these difficulties at School of Medication and Allied Well being Sciences library, the Browne charging or Issue Process has demonstrated to be the remedy that has salvage the challenge of delivery of companies to their consumers and the thanks preservation of their elements.